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Tuesday, June 9, 2009

WinRunner FAQs - II

70) What do you verify with the sync point for object/window bitmap and what command it generates, explain syntax?
a. You can create a bitmap synchronization point that waits for the bitmap of an object or a window to appear in the application being tested.
b. During a test run, WinRunner suspends test execution until the specified bitmap is redrawn, and then compares the current bitmap with the expected one captured earlier. If the bitmaps match, then WinRunner continues the test.
Syntax:
obj_wait_bitmap ( object, image, time );
win_wait_bitmap ( window, image, time );


71) What do you verify with the sync point for screen area and what command it generates, explain syntax?
a. For screen area verification we actually capture the screen area into a bitmap and verify the application screen area with the bitmap file during execution
Syntax: obj_wait_bitmap(object, image, time, x, y, width, height);

72) How do you edit checklist file and when do you need to edit the checklist file?
a. WinRunner has an edit checklist file option under the create menu. Select the “Edit GUI Checklist” to modify GUI checklist file and “Edit Database Checklist” to edit database checklist file. This brings up a dialog box that gives you option to select the checklist file to modify. There is also an option to select the scope of the checklist file, whether it is Test specific or a shared one. Select the checklist file, click OK which opens up the window to edit the properties of the objects.

73) How do you edit the expected value of an object?
a. We can modify the expected value of the object by executing the script in the Update mode. We can also manually edit the gui*.chk file which contains the expected values which come under the exp folder to change the values.

74) How do you modify the expected results of a GUI checkpoint?
a. We can modify the expected results of a GUI checkpoint be running the script containing the checkpoint in the update mode.

75) How do you handle ActiveX and Visual basic objects?
a. WinRunner provides with add-ins for ActiveX and Visual basic objects. When loading WinRunner, select those add-ins and these add-ins provide with a set of functions to work on ActiveX and VB objects.

76) How do you create ODBC query?
a. We can create ODBC query using the database checkpoint wizard. It provides with option to create an SQL file that uses an ODBC DSN to connect to the database. The SQL File will contain the connection string and the SQL statement.

77) How do you record a data driven test?
a. We can create a data-driven testing using data from a flat file, data table or a database.
i. Using Flat File: we actually store the data to be used in a required format in the file. We access the file using the File manipulation commands, reads data from the file and assign the variables with data.
ii. Data Table: It is an excel file. We can store test data in these files and manipulate them. We use the ‘ddt_*’ functions to manipulate data in the data table.
iii. Database: we store test data in the database and access these data using ‘db_*’ functions.


78) How do you convert a database file to a text file?
a. You can use Data Junction to create a conversion file which converts a database to a target text file.

79) How do you parameterize database check points?
a. When you create a standard database checkpoint using ODBC (Microsoft Query), you can add parameters to an SQL statement to parameterize the checkpoint. This is useful if you want to create a database checkpoint with a query in which the SQL statement defining your query changes.

80) How do you create parameterize SQL commands?
a. A parameterized query is a query in which at least one of the fields of the WHERE clause is parameterized, i.e., the value of the field is specified by a question mark symbol ( ? ). For example, the following SQL statement is based on a query on the database in the sample Flight Reservation application:

i. SELECT Flights.Departure, Flights.Flight_Number, Flights.Day_Of_Week FROM Flights Flights WHERE (Flights.Departure=?) AND (Flights.Day_Of_Week=?)

SELECT defines the columns to include in the query.
FROM specifies the path of the database.
WHERE (optional) specifies the conditions, or filters to use in the query.
Departure is the parameter that represents the departure point of a flight.
Day_Of_Week is the parameter that represents the day of the week of a flight.

b. When creating a database checkpoint, you insert a db_check statement into your test script. When you parameterize the SQL statement in your checkpoint, the db_check function has a fourth, optional, argument: the parameter_array argument. A statement similar to the following is inserted into your test script:

db_check("list1.cdl", "dbvf1", NO_LIMIT, dbvf1_params);

The parameter_array argument will contain the values to substitute for the parameters in the parameterized checkpoint.


81) Explain the following commands:
a. db_connect
i. to connect to a database
db_connect(, );

b. db_execute_query
i. to execute a query
db_execute_query ( session_name, SQL, record_number );

record_number is the out value.

c. db_get_field_value
i. returns the value of a single field in the specified row_index and column in the session_name database session.

db_get_field_value ( session_name, row_index, column );

d. db_get_headers
i. returns the number of column headers in a query and the content of the column headers, concatenated and delimited by tabs.

db_get_headers ( session_name, header_count, header_content );

e. db_get_row
i. returns the content of the row, concatenated and delimited by tabs.

db_get_row ( session_name, row_index, row_content );
f. db_write_records
i. writes the record set into a text file delimited by tabs.

db_write_records ( session_name, output_file [ , headers [ , record_limit ] ] );

g. db_get_last_error
i. returns the last error message of the last ODBC or Data Junction operation in the session_name database session.

db_get_last_error ( session_name, error );

h. db_disconnect
i. disconnects from the database and ends the database session.

db_disconnect ( session_name );

i. db_dj_convert
i. runs the djs_file Data Junction export file. When you run this file, the Data Junction Engine converts data from one spoke (source) to another (target). The optional parameters enable you to override the settings in the Data Junction export file.

db_dj_convert ( djs_file [ , output_file [ , headers [ , record_limit ] ] ] );
82) What check points you will use to read and check text on the GUI and explain its syntax?
a. You can use text checkpoints in your test scripts to read and check text in GUI objects and in areas of the screen. While creating a test you point to an object or a window containing text. WinRunner reads the text and writes a TSL statement to the test script. You may then add simple programming elements to your test scripts to verify the contents of the text.

b. You can use a text checkpoint to:
i. Read text from a GUI object or window in your application, using obj_get_text and win_get_text
ii. Search for text in an object or window, using win_find_text and obj_find_text
iii. Move the mouse pointer to text in an object or window, using obj_move_locator_text and win_move_locator_text
iv. Click on text in an object or window, using obj_click_on_text and win_click_on_text

83) Explain Get Text checkpoint from object/window with syntax?
a. We use obj_get_text (, ) function to get the text from an object
b. We use win_get_text (window, out_text [, x1, y1, x2, y2]) function to get the text from a window.

84) Explain Get Text checkpoint from screen area with syntax?
a. We use win_get_text (window, out_text [, x1, y1, x2, y2]) function to get the text from a window.

85) Explain Get Text checkpoint from selection (web only) with syntax?
a. Returns a text string from an object.

web_obj_get_text (object, table_row, table_column, out_text [, text_before, text_after, index]);

i. object The logical name of the object.
ii. table_row If the object is a table, it specifies the location of the row within a table. The string is preceded by the # character.
iii. table_column If the object is a table, it specifies the location of the column within a table. The string is preceded by the # character.
iv. out_text The output variable that stores the text string.
v. text_before Defines the start of the search area for a particular text string.
vi. text_after Defines the end of the search area for a particular text string.
vii. index The occurrence number to locate. (The default parameter number is numbered 1).

86) Explain Get Text checkpoint web text checkpoint with syntax?
a. We use web_obj_text_exists function for web text checkpoints.

web_obj_text_exists ( object, table_row, table_column, text_to_find [, text_before, text_after] );

a. object The logical name of the object to search.
b. table_row If the object is a table, it specifies the location of the row within a table. The string is preceded by the character #.
c. table_column If the object is a table, it specifies the location of the column within a table. The string is preceded by the character #.
d. text_to_find The string that is searched for.
e. text_before Defines the start of the search area for a particular text string.
f. text_after Defines the end of the search area for a particular text string.

87) Which TSL functions you will use for
a. Searching text on the window
i. find_text ( string, out_coord_array, search_area [, string_def ] );

string The string that is searched for. The string must be complete, contain no spaces, and it must be preceded and followed by a space outside the quotation marks. To specify a literal, case-sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. In this case, the string variable can include a regular expression.

out_coord_array The name of the array that stores the screen coordinates of the text (see explanation below).

search_area The area to search, specified as coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2. These define any two diagonal corners of a rectangle. The interpreter searches for the text in the area defined by the rectangle.

string_def Defines the type of search to perform. If no value is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default), the search is for a single complete word only. When 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

b. getting the location of the text string
i. win_find_text ( window, string, result_array [, search_area [, string_def ] ] );


window The logical name of the window to search.

string The text to locate. To specify a literal, case sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. The value of the string variable can include a regular expression. The regular expression should not include an exclamation mark (!), however, which is treated as a literal character. For more information regarding Regular Expressions, refer to the "Using Regular Expressions" chapter in your User's Guide.

result_array The name of the output variable that stores the location of the string as a four-element array.

search_area The region of the object to search, relative to the window. This area is defined as a pair of coordinates, with x1,y1,x2,y2 specifying any two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular search region. If this parameter is not defined, then the entire window is considered the search area.

string_def Defines how the text search is performed. If no string_def is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default parameter), the interpreter searches for a complete word only. If 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

c. Moving the pointer to that text string
i. win_move_locator_text (window, string [ ,search_area [ ,string_def ] ] );

window The logical name of the window.

string The text to locate. To specify a literal, case sensitive string, enclose the string in quotation marks. Alternatively, you can specify the name of a string variable. The value of the string variable can include a regular expression (the regular expression need not begin with an exclamation mark).

search_area The region of the object to search, relative to the window. This area is defined as a pair of coordinates, with x1, y1, x2, y2 specifying any two diagonally opposite corners of the rectangular search region. If this parameter is not defined, then the entire window specified is considered the search area.
string_def Defines how the text search is performed. If no string_def is specified, (0 or FALSE, the default parameter), the interpreter searches for a complete word only. If 1, or TRUE, is specified, the search is not restricted to a single, complete word.

d. Comparing the text
i. compare_text (str1, str2 [, chars1, chars2]);

str1, str2 The two strings to be compared.

chars1 One or more characters in the first string.

chars2 One or more characters in the second string. These characters are substituted for those in chars1.

88) What are the steps of creating a data driven test?
a. The steps involved in data driven testing are:
i. Creating a test
ii. Converting to a data-driven test and preparing a database
iii. Running the test
iv. Analyzing the test results.

89) Record a data driven test script using data driver wizard?
a. You can use the DataDriver Wizard to convert your entire script or a part of your script into a data-driven test. For example, your test script may include recorded operations, checkpoints, and other statements that do not need to be repeated for multiple sets of data. You need to parameterize only the portion of your test script that you want to run in a loop with multiple sets of data.

To create a data-driven test:
i. If you want to turn only part of your test script into a data-driven test, first select those lines in the test script.
ii. Choose Tools > DataDriver Wizard.
iii. If you want to turn only part of the test into a data-driven test, click Cancel. Select those lines in the test script and reopen the DataDriver Wizard. If you want to turn the entire test into a data-driven test, click Next.
iv. The Use a new or existing Excel table box displays the name of the Excel file that WinRunner creates, which stores the data for the data-driven test. Accept the default data table for this test, enter a different name for the data table, or use
v. The browse button to locate the path of an existing data table. By default, the data table is stored in the test folder.
vi. In the Assign a name to the variable box, enter a variable name with which to refer to the data table, or accept the default name, “table.”
vii. At the beginning of a data-driven test, the Excel data table you selected is assigned as the value of the table variable. Throughout the script, only the table variable name is used. This makes it easy for you to assign a different data table
viii. To the script at a later time without making changes throughout the script.
ix. Choose from among the following options:
1. Add statements to create a data-driven test: Automatically adds statements to run your test in a loop: sets a variable name by which to refer to the data table; adds braces ({and}), a for statement, and a ddt_get_row_count statement to your test script selection to run it in a loop while it reads from the data table; adds ddt_open and ddt_close statements
2. To your test script to open and close the data table, which are necessary in order to iterate rows in the table. Note that you can also add these statements to your test script manually.
3. If you do not choose this option, you will receive a warning that your data-driven test must contain a loop and statements to open and close your datatable.
4. Import data from a database: Imports data from a database. This option adds ddt_update_from_db, and ddt_save statements to your test script after the ddt_open statement.
5. Note that in order to import data from a database, either Microsoft Query or Data Junction must be installed on your machine. You can install Microsoft Query from the custom installation of Microsoft Office. Note that Data Junction is not automatically included in your WinRunner package. To purchase Data Junction, contact your Mercury Interactive representative. For detailed information on working with Data Junction, refer to the documentation in the Data Junction package.
6. Parameterize the test: Replaces fixed values in selected checkpoints and in recorded statements with parameters, using the ddt_val function, and in the data table, adds columns with variable values for the parameters. Line by line: Opens a wizard screen for each line of the selected test script, which enables you to decide whether to parameterize a particular line, and if so, whether to add a new column to the data table or use an existing column when parameterizing data.
7. Automatically: Replaces all data with ddt_val statements and adds new columns to the data table. The first argument of the function is the name of the column in the data table. The replaced data is inserted into the table.

x. The Test script line to parameterize box displays the line of the test script to parameterize. The highlighted value can be replaced by a parameter. The Argument to be replaced box displays the argument (value) that you can replace with a parameter. You can use the arrows to select a different argument to replace.

Choose whether and how to replace the selected data:
1. Do not replace this data: Does not parameterize this data.
2. An existing column: If parameters already exist in the data table for this test, select an existing parameter from the list.
3. A new column: Creates a new column for this parameter in the data table for this test. Adds the selected data to this column of the data table. The default name for the new parameter is the logical name of the object in the selected. TSL statement above. Accept this name or assign a new name.

xi. The final screen of the wizard opens.
1. If you want the data table to open after you close the wizard, select Show data table now.
2. To perform the tasks specified in previous screens and close the wizard, click Finish.
3. To close the wizard without making any changes to the test script, click Cancel.

90) What are the three modes of running the scripts?
a. WinRunner provides three modes in which to run tests—Verify, Debug, and Update. You use each mode during a different phase of the testing process.
i. Verify
1. Use the Verify mode to check your application.
ii. Debug
1. Use the Debug mode to help you identify bugs in a test script.
iii. Update
1. Use the Update mode to update the expected results of a test or to create a new expected results folder.
91) Explain the following TSL functions:
a. Ddt_open
i. Creates or opens a datatable file so that WinRunner can access it.
Syntax: ddt_open ( data_table_name, mode );

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

mode The mode for opening the data table: DDT_MODE_READ (read-only) or DDT_MODE_READWRITE (read or write).

b. Ddt_save
i. Saves the information into a data file.
Syntax: dt_save (data_table_name);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table.

c. Ddt_close
i. Closes a data table file
Syntax: ddt_close ( data_table_name );

data_table_name The name of the data table. The data table is a Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

d. Ddt_export
i. Exports the information of one data table file into a different data table file.
Syntax: ddt_export (data_table_namename1, data_table_namename2);

data_table_namename1 The source data table filename.
data_table_namename2 The destination data table filename.

e. Ddt_show
i. Shows or hides the table editor of a specified data table.
Syntax: ddt_show (data_table_name [, show_flag]);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table.

show_flag The value indicating whether the editor should be shown (default=1) or hidden (0).

f. Ddt_get_row_count
i. Retrieves the no. of rows in a data tables
Syntax: ddt_get_row_count (data_table_name, out_rows_count);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

out_rows_count The output variable that stores the total number of rows in the data table.

g. ddt_next_row
i. Changes the active row in a database to the next row
Syntax: ddt_next_row (data_table_name);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

h. ddt_set_row
i. Sets the active row in a data table.
Syntax: ddt_set_row (data_table_name, row);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

row The new active row in the data table.

i. ddt_set_val
i. Sets a value in the current row of the data table
Syntax: ddt_set_val (data_table_name, parameter, value);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.
parameter The name of the column into which the value will be inserted.
value The value to be written into the table.


j. ddt_set_val_by_row
i. Sets a value in a specified row of the data table.
Syntax: ddt_set_val_by_row (data_table_name, row, parameter, value);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

row The row number in the table. It can be any existing row or the current row number plus 1, which will add a new row to the data table.

parameter The name of the column into which the value will be inserted.

value The value to be written into the table.

k. ddt_get_current_row
i. Retrieves the active row of a data table.
Syntax: ddt_get_current_row ( data_table_name, out_row );

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

out_row The output variable that stores the active row in the data table.

l. ddt_is_parameter
i. Returns whether a parameter in a datatable is valid
Syntax: ddt_is_parameter (data_table_name, parameter);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

parameter The parameter name to check in the data table.

m. ddt_get_parameters
i. Returns a list of all parameters in a data table.
Syntax: ddt_get_parameters ( table, params_list, params_num );

table The pathname of the data table.
params_list This out parameter returns the list of all parameters in the data table, separated by tabs.
params_num This out parameter returns the number of parameters in params_list.

n. ddt_val
i. Returns the value of a parameter in the active roe in a data table.
Syntax: ddt_val (data_table_name, parameter);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters.

parameter The name of the parameter in the data table.

o. ddt_val_by_row
i. Returns the value of a parameter in the specified row in a data table.
Syntax: ddt_val_by_row ( data_table_name, row_number, parameter );

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

row_number The number of the row in the data table.

parameter The name of the parameter in the data table.

p. ddt_report_row
i. Reports the active row in a data table to the test results
Syntax: ddt_report_row (data_table_name);

data_table_name The name of the data table. The name may be the table variable name, the Microsoft Excel file or a tabbed text file name, or the full path and file name of the table. The first row in the file contains the names of the parameters. This row is labeled row 0.

q. ddt_update_from_db
i. imports data from a database into a data table. It is inserted into your test script when you select the Import data from a database option in the DataDriver Wizard. When you run your test, this function updates the data table with data from the database.


92) How do you handle unexpected events and errors?
a. WinRunner uses exception handling to detect an unexpected event when it occurs and act to recover the test run.








WinRunner enables you to handle the following types of exceptions:

Pop-up exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle the appearance of a specific window.

TSL exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle TSL functions that return a specific error code.

Object exceptions: Instruct WinRunner to detect and handle a change in a property for a specific GUI object.

Web exceptions: When the WebTest add-in is loaded, you can instruct WinRunner to handle unexpected events and errors that occur in your Web site during a test run.

93) How do you handle pop-up exceptions?
a. A pop-up exception Handler handles the pop-up messages that come up during the execution of the script in the AUT. TO handle this type of exception we make WinRunner learn the window and also specify a handler to the exception. It could be
i. Default actions: WinRunner clicks the OK or Cancel button in the pop-up window, or presses Enter on the keyboard. To select a default handler, click the appropriate button in the dialog box.
ii. User-defined handler: If you prefer, specify the name of your own handler. Click User Defined Function Name and type in a name in the User Defined Function Name box.

94) How do you handle TSL exceptions?
a. A TSL exception enables you to detect and respond to a specific error code returned during test execution.
b. Suppose you are running a batch test on an unstable version of your application. If your application crashes, you want WinRunner to recover test execution. A TSL exception can instruct WinRunner to recover test execution by exiting the current test, restarting the application, and continuing with the next test in the batch.
c. The handler function is responsible for recovering test execution. When WinRunner detects a specific error code, it calls the handler function. You implement this function to respond to the unexpected error in the way that meets your specific testing needs.
d. Once you have defined the exception, WinRunner activates handling and adds the exception to the list of default TSL exceptions in the Exceptions dialog box. Default TSL exceptions are defined by the XR_EXCP_TSL configuration parameter in the wrun.ini configuration file.

95) How do you handle object exceptions?
a. During testing, unexpected changes can occur to GUI objects in the application you are testing. These changes are often subtle but they can disrupt the test run and distort results.
b. You could use exception handling to detect a change in property of the GUI object during the test run, and to recover test execution by calling a handler function and continue with the test execution

96) How do you comment your script?
a. We comment a script or line of script by inserting a ‘#’ at the beginning of the line.

97) What is a compile module?
a. A compiled module is a script containing a library of user-defined functions that you want to call frequently from other tests. When you load a compiled module, its functions are automatically compiled and remain in memory. You can call them directly from within any test.
b. Compiled modules can improve the organization and performance of your tests. Since you debug compiled modules before using them, your tests will require less error-checking. In addition, calling a function that is already compiled is significantly faster than interpreting a function in a test script.

98) What is the difference between script and compile module?
a. Test script contains the executable file in WinRunner while Compiled Module is used to store reusable functions. Complied modules are not executable.
b. WinRunner performs a pre-compilation automatically when it saves a module assigned a property value of “Compiled Module”.
c. By default, modules containing TSL code have a property value of "main". Main modules are called for execution from within other modules. Main modules are dynamically compiled into machine code only when WinRunner recognizes a "call" statement. Example of a call for the "app_init" script:

call cso_init();
call( "C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "app_init" );
d. Compiled modules are loaded into memory to be referenced from TSL code in any module. Example of a load statement:

reload (“C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "flt_lib");
or
load ("C:\\MyAppFolder\\" & "flt_lib");

99) Write and explain various loop command?
a. A for loop instructs WinRunner to execute one or more statements a specified number of times.

It has the following syntax:

for ( [ expression1 ]; [ expression2 ]; [ expression3 ] )
statement

i. First, expression1 is executed. Next, expression2 is evaluated. If expression2 is true, statement is executed and expression3 is executed. The cycle is repeated as long as expression2 remains true. If expression2 is false, the for statement terminates and execution passes to the first statement immediately following.
ii. For example, the for loop below selects the file UI_TEST from the File Name list
iii. in the Open window. It selects this file five times and then stops.
set_window ("Open")
for (i=0; i General Options. The General Options dialog box opens. Click the Folders tab and choose a search path in the Search Path for Called Tests box. WinRunner searches the directories in the order in which they are listed in the box. Note that the search paths you define remain active in future testing sessions.

110) How you create user-defined functions and explain the syntax?
a. A user-defined function has the following structure:

[class] function name ([mode] parameter...)
{
declarations;
statements;
}

b. The class of a function can be either static or public. A static function is available only to the test or module within which the function was defined.
c.
d. Parameters need not be explicitly declared. They can be of mode in, out, or inout. For all non-array parameters, the default mode is in. For array parameters, the default is inout. The significance of each of these parameter types is as follows:

in: A parameter that is assigned a value from outside the function.
out: A parameter that is assigned a value from inside the function.
inout: A parameter that can be assigned a value from outside or inside the function.

111) What does static and public class of a function means?
a. The class of a function can be either static or public.
b. A static function is available only to the test or module within which the function was defined.
c. Once you execute a public function, it is available to all tests, for as long as the test containing the function remains open. This is convenient when you want the function to be accessible from called tests. However, if you want to create a function that will be available to many tests, you should place it in a compiled module. The functions in a compiled module are available for the duration of the testing session.
d. If no class is explicitly declared, the function is assigned the default class, public.

112) What does in, out and input parameters means?
a. in: A parameter that is assigned a value from outside the function.
b. out: A parameter that is assigned a value from inside the function.
c. inout: A parameter that can be assigned a value from outside or inside the function.
113) What is the purpose of return statement?
a. This statement passes control back to the calling function or test. It also returns the value of the evaluated expression to the calling function or test. If no expression is assigned to the return statement, an empty string is returned.
Syntax: return [( expression )];

114) What does auto, static, public and extern variables means?
a. auto: An auto variable can be declared only within a function and is local to that function. It exists only for as long as the function is running. A new copy of the variable is created each time the function is called.
b. static: A static variable is local to the function, test, or compiled module in which it is declared. The variable retains its value until the test is terminated by an Abort command. This variable is initialized each time the definition of the function is executed.
c. public: A public variable can be declared only within a test or module, and is available for all functions, tests, and compiled modules.
d. extern: An extern declaration indicates a reference to a public variable declared outside of the current test or module.

115) How do you declare constants?
a. The const specifier indicates that the declared value cannot be modified. The class of a constant may be either public or static. If no class is explicitly declared, the constant is assigned the default class public. Once a constant is defined, it remains in existence until you exit WinRunner.
b. The syntax of this declaration is:
[class] const name [= expression];

116) How do you declare arrays?
a. The following syntax is used to define the class and the initial expression of an array. Array size need not be defined in TSL.
b. class array_name [ ] [=init_expression]
c. The array class may be any of the classes used for variable declarations (auto, static, public, extern).

117) How do you load and unload a compile module?
a. In order to access the functions in a compiled module you need to load the module. You can load it from within any test script using the load command; all tests will then be able to access the function until you quit WinRunner or unload the compiled module.
b. You can load a module either as a system module or as a user module. A system module is generally a closed module that is “invisible” to the tester. It is not displayed when it is loaded, cannot be stepped into, and is not stopped by a pause command. A system module is not unloaded when you execute an unload statement with no parameters (global unload).

load (module_name [,1Ә] [,1Ә] );

The module_name is the name of an existing compiled module.

Two additional, optional parameters indicate the type of module. The first parameter indicates whether the function module is a system module or a user module: 1 indicates a system module; 0 indicates a user module.

(Default = 0)

The second optional parameter indicates whether a user module will remain open in the WinRunner window or will close automatically after it is loaded: 1 indicates that the module will close automatically; 0 indicates that the module will remain open.
(Default = 0)
c. The unload function removes a loaded module or selected functions from memory.
d. It has the following syntax:
unload ( [ module_name | test_name [ , "function_name" ] ] );

118) Why you use reload function?
a. If you make changes in a module, you should reload it. The reload function removes a loaded module from memory and reloads it (combining the functions of unload and load).
The syntax of the reload function is:
reload ( module_name [ ,1Ә ] [ ,1Ә ] );

The module_name is the name of an existing compiled module.

Two additional optional parameters indicate the type of module. The first parameter indicates whether the module is a system module or a user module: 1 indicates a system module; 0 indicates a user module.
(Default = 0)
The second optional parameter indicates whether a user module will remain open in the WinRunner window or will close automatically after it is loaded. 1 indicates that the module will close automatically. 0 indicates that the module will remain open.
(Default = 0)

119) Write and explain compile module?
a.
120) How do you call a function from external libraries (dll).
121) What is the purpose of load_dll?
122) How do you load and unload external libraries?
123) How do you declare external functions in TSL?
124) How do you call windows APIs, explain with an example?
125) Write TSL functions for the following interactive modes:
i. Creating a dialog box with any message you specify, and an edit field.
ii. Create dialog box with list of items and message.
iii. Create dialog box with edit field, check box, and execute button, and a cancel button.
iv. Creating a browse dialog box from which user selects a file.
v. Create a dialog box with two edit fields, one for login and another for password input.
126) What is the purpose of step, step into, step out, step to cursor commands for debugging your script?
127) How do you update your expected results?
128) How do you run your script with multiple sets of expected results?
129) How do you view and evaluate test results for various check points?
130) How do you view the results of file comparison?
131) What is the purpose of Wdiff utility?
132) What are batch tests and how do you create and run batch tests ?
133) How do you store and view batch test results?
134) How do you execute your tests from windows run command?
135) Explain different command line options?
136) What TSL function you will use to pause your script?
137) What is the purpose of setting a break point?
138) What is a watch list?
139) During debugging how do you monitor the value of the variables?

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