Unit testing is the testing of individual components (units) of the software. Unit testing is
usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. The basic units of design and code in Ada, C and C++ programs are individual subprograms (procedures, functions, member functions). Ada and C++ provide capabilities for grouping basic units together into packages (Ada) and classes (C++).
Unit testing for Ada and C++ usually tests units in the context of the containing package or class.
When developing a strategy for unit testing, there are three basic organisational approaches that can be taken. These are top down, bottom up and isolation. These three approaches are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed in sections 2, 3, and 4 of this paper.
The concepts of test drivers and stubs are used throughout this paper. A test driver is software which executes software in order to test it, providing a framework for setting input parameters, executing the unit, and reading the output parameters. A stub is an imitation of a unit, used in place of the real unit to facilitate testing.
An AdaTEST or Cantata test script comprises a test driver and an (optional) collection of stubs. Using AdaTEST or Cantata to implement the organisational approaches to unit testing presented in this paper is discussed in section 5.
2. Top Down Testing
In top down unit testing, individual units are tested by using them from the units which call them, but in isolation from the units called. The unit at the top of a hierarchy is tested first, with all called units replaced by stubs. Testing continues by replacing the stubs with the actual called units, with lower level units being stubbed. This process is repeated until the lowest level units have been tested.
Top down testing requires test stubs, but not test drivers.
Figure 2.1 illustrates the test stubs and tested units needed to test unit D, assuming that units A, B and C have already been tested in a top down approach. A unit test plan for the program shown in figure 2.1, using a strategy based on the top down organisational approach, could read as follows:
Test unit A, using stubs for units B, C and D.
Test unit B, by calling it from tested unit A, using stubs for units C and D.
Test unit C, by calling it from tested unit A, using tested units B and a stub for unit D.
Test unit D, by calling it from tested unit A, using tested unit B and C, and stubs for units E, F and G. (Shown in figure 2.1).
Test unit E, by calling it from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B and C, and stubs for units F, G, H, I and J.
Test unit F, by calling it from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B, C and E, and stubs for units G, H, I and J.
Test unit G, by calling it from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B, C, E and F, and stubs for units H, I and J.
Test unit H, by calling it from tested unit E, which is called from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B, C, E, F and G, and stubs for units I and J.
Test unit I, by calling it from tested unit E, which is called from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B, C, E, F, G and H, and a stub for units J.
Test unit J, by calling it from tested unit E, which is called from tested unit D, which is called from tested unit A, using tested units B, C, E, F, G, H and I.
Top down unit testing provides an early integration of units before the software integration phase. In fact, top down unit testing is really a combined unit test and software integration strategy.
The detailed design of units is top down, and top down unit testing implements tests in the sequence units are designed, so development time can be shortened by overlapping unit testing with the detailed design and code phases of the software lifecycle. In a conventionally structured design, where units at the top of the hierarchy provide high level functions, with units at the bottom of the hierarchy implementing details, top down unit testing will provide an early integration of 'visible' functionality. This gives a very requirements oriented approach to unit testing. Redundant functionality in lower level units will be identified by top down unit testing, because there will be no route to test it. (However, there can be some difficulty in distinguishing between redundant functionality and untested functionality).
Top down unit testing is controlled by stubs, with test cases often spread across many stubs. With each unit tested, testing becomes more complicated, and consequently more expensive to develop and maintain. As testing progresses down the unit hierarchy, it also becomes more difficult to achieve
the good structural coverage which is essential for high integrity and safety critical applications, and which are required by many standards. Difficulty in achieving structural coverage can also lead to a confusion between genuinely redundant functionality and untested functionality. Testing some low level functionality, especially error handling code, can be totally impractical. Changes to a unit often impact the testing of sibling units and units below it in the hierarchy. For example, consider a change to unit D. Obviously, the unit test for unit D would have to change and be repeated. In addition, unit tests for units E, F, G, H, I and J, which use the tested unit D, would also have to be repeated. These tests may also have to change themselves, as a consequence of the change to unit D, even though units E, F, G, H, I and J had not actually changed. This leads to a high cost associated with retesting when changes are made, and a high maintenance and overall lifecycle cost.
The design of test cases for top down unit testing requires structural knowledge of when the unit under test calls other units. The sequence in which units can be tested is constrained by the hierarchy of units, with lower units having to wait for higher units to be tested, forcing a 'long and thin' unit test phase. (However, this can overlap substantially with the detailed design and code phases of the software lifecycle).
The relationships between units in the example program in figure 2.1 is much simpler than would be encountered in a real program, where units could be referenced from more than one other unit in the hierarchy. All of the disadvantages of a top down approach to unit testing are compounded by a unit being referenced from more than one other unit.
A top down strategy will cost more than an isolation based strategy, due to complexity of testing units below the top of the unit hierarchy, and the high impact of changes. The top down ganisational approach is not a good choice for unit testing. However, a top down approach to the integration of units, where the units have already been tested in isolation, can be viable.
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